Research Publications

  White Papers

  Reference List

Reference List

This reference list is a collection of resources concerning concept maps and related representations. The list is by no means complete, as research on concept maps and their applications is ongoing in many areas.

The papers presented at the First International Conference on Concept Mapping (CMC 2004) which took place on September 2004 in Pamplona, Spain, are available at CMC's Program Webpage.

Abstracts, when available in the reference list, are from ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), and some of the articles can be ordered from ERIC at

Abrams, R. (2000). Meaningful learning: A collaborative literature review of concept mapping, Meaningful Learning Research Group, California Consortium for Teacher Development, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA.

Aidman, E. and Egan, G. (1998). “Academic assessment through computerized concept mapping: validating a method of implicit map reconstruction.” International Journal of Instructional Media 25(3): 277-294.
A study of 100 psychology undergraduates and two lecturers found that implicit concept maps can be accurately reconstructed and compared with measures obtained from domain experts and that implicit learner maps can be used to identify individual differences in student knowledge. Discusses future research and potential applications in quantitative assessment of conceptual knowledge. Contains 48 references. (PEN)

Al-Kunifred, A. and Wandersee, J. (1990). “One hundred references related to concept mapping.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1069-1075.

Anderson, O. R. and Demetrius, O. (1993). “A flow-map method of representing cognitive structure based on respondents' narrative using science content.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(8): 953-969.
Method is presented for displaying the sequential and multirelational ideation of scientific narrative elicited from respondents. The flow map provides a figural representation of the flow of information, the points in the flow where multirelational and recurrent linkages are made, and the time required to retrieve and express the information at major intervals in the sequence and in total. (PR)

Ault, C. R. (1985). “Concept mapping as a study strategy in earth science.” Journal of Science College Teaching: 38-44.
Concept mapping leads students away from rote learning and toward true understanding of concepts and their relationships. Several sample and student maps on earth science topics are presented and discussed. Applications for science instructors, students, researchers, and teacher educators are also considered. (DH)

Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York, Grune and Stratton.

Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D. and Hanesian, H. (1978). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D. and Hanesian, H. (1986 reprinting). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York, Werbel and Peck.

Ayersman, D. (1995). “Effects of knowledge representation format and hypermedia instruction on metacognitive accuracy.” Computers in Human Behavior 11(3-4): 533-555.
Discussion of hypermedia, memory, and metacognition focuses on a study of graduate students that examined how hypermedia instruction can influence structures of knowledge, format selection for graphical descriptions of hypermedia-related information, hypermedia knowledge, concept-map complexity, and metacognitive accuracy. Future research is discussed. (LRW)

Bascones, J. and Novak, J. D. (1985). “Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem-solving skills.” European Journal of Science Education 7(3): 253-261.

Bascones, J. and Novak, J. D. (1985). “Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem solving skills in physics.” European Journal of Science Education 7(3): 253-261.

Beissner, K., Jonassen, D. and Grabowski, B. (1994). “Using and selecting graphic techniques to acquire structural knowledge.” Performance Improvement Quarterly 7(4): 20-38.
This paper describes the characteristics of graphic techniques, such as networks, pattern notes, semantic maps, and graphic organizers, that can be used to acquire knowledge of relationships between concepts in a content area. The implications for research and instructional design are considered, and nine types of these techniques are described and illustrated. A model that proposes different effects of these graphing strategies based upon the cognitive processes required to construct the graphic is presented. Hierarchically organized graphics require analysis and elaboration of content and seem to enhance recall and transfer of learning. Heterarchical graphics require integration of content, which facilitates inference and problem- solving. While other characteristics of graphic techniques may affect learning outcomes, the primary differences will result from the types of cognitive processes induced when the graphics are generated. (Contains 36 references.) (KRN)

Belisle, C., Zeiliger, R. and Cerrato, T. (1997). Integrated cognitive engineering at the interface: A tool mediation perspective. Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology, Aizu, Japan, IEEE Computer Society.

Berg-Cross, G. and Price, M. E. (1989). “Acquiring and managing knowledge using a conceptual structures approach: Introduction and framework.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 19: 513-527.

Cañas, A. J., Ford, K. M., Brennan, J., Reichherzer, T. and Hayes, P. (1995, July). Knowledge Construction and Sharing in Quorum. Seventh World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Washington DC.

Cañas, A. J., Coffey, J., Reichherzer, T., Suri, N. and Carff, R. (1997, May). El-Tech: A Performance Support System with Embedded Training for Electronics Technicians. Eleventh Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium, Sanibel Island, FL.

Cañas, A. (1998). Concept maps: New Uses and the Underlying Technology. Mountain View, CA, NASA Ames Research Center.

Cañas, A. J., Leake, D. B. and Wilson, D. C. (1999). Managing, Mapping and Manipulating Conceptual Knowledge: Exploring the Synergies of Knowledge Management & Case-Based Reasoning. Menlo Park CA, AAAI Press.

Cañas, A. (1999, November). Algunas Ideas sobre la Educación y las Herramientas Computacionales Necesarias para Apoyar su Implementación. Revista RED: Educación y Formación Profesional a Distancia, Ministry of Education, Spain.

Cañas, A. J., Ford, K. M., Novak, J. D., Hayes, P., Reichherzer, T. and Niranjan, S. (2001). “Online concept maps: Enhancing collaborative learning by using technology with concept maps.” The Science Teacher 68(4): 49-51.

Carley, K. and Palmquist, M. (1992). “Extracting, representing and analyzing mental models.” Social Forces 70: 601-636.
Describes a computer-based methodology for representing mental models as maps, extracting these maps from written and spoken texts, and analyzing and comparing concepts and structures of information within maps. Illustrates the model using data on students and teacher in an undergraduate writing class. Contains about 80 references. (Author/SV)

Carnot, M., Dunn, B., Cañas, A., Baker, G. and Bense, J. (1999). The Effectiveness of Computer Interfaces in Information Search. Southeastern Psychological Association, Savannah, GA.

Carnot, M. J., Dunn, B., Cañas, A., Muldoon, J. and Brigham, T. (2000, June). Learning Style, Interface and Question Order Effects on Search Performance. American Psychological Society, Miami Beach.

Carnot, M. J., Dunn, B., Cañas, A., Gram, P., Muldoon, J. and Arguea, N., Chicago, IL, May 4-6. (2000, May). Learning Style Differences in Effective Use of Computer Interfaces. Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Cawley, J. (1999). Validation of concept maps as a tool to predict performance on course exams. American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.

Chastony, J. P., Papert, J. D., Laporte, G., Praplan, E., Brenner, F., Rougemont, A. and Guilbert, J. J. (1999). “Use of concept mapping to define learning objectives in a Master of Public Health Program.” Teaching and Learning in Medicine 11(1): 21-25.

Chmeilewski, T., Dansereau, D. and Moreland, J. (1998). “Using common region in node-link displays: the role of field dependence/independence.” Journal of Experimental Education 66(3): 197-207.
The role common region (CR) plays in acquiring scientific information from node-link displays was studied by testing 88 subjects under conditions of knowledge maps demonstrating or not demonstrating CR. Field-dependent subjects scored better than the field-independent subjects for maps demonstrating CR, whereas the opposite was true for maps not demonstrating CR. (MAK)

Chmeilewski, T. and Dansereau, D. (1998). “Enhancing the recall of text: Knowledge mapping training promotes implicit transfer.” Journal of Educational Psychology 90(3): 407-413.
In an experiment involving 60 college students, students trained with knowledge maps retained more macro-level ideas from text passages than students not given the training. In a second experiment with 53 college students, training facilitated recall of both macro-level and micro-level ideas. (SLD)

Chung, G. K. W. K., O'Neil, H. F., Jr. and Herl, H. E. (1999). “The use of computer-based collaborative knowledge mapping to measure team processes and team outcomes.” Computers in Human Behavior 15(3-4)(3-4): 463-493.
The feasibility and validity of using a computer-based networked collaborative knowledge mapping system to measure teamwork skills was examined. Student groups (10 groups of 3 ninth graders each) were assessed with the system twice in the academic year, once in the fall and once the following spring. The study focused on the nature of the interaction among team members as they jointly constructed a knowledge map. Each student was randomly assigned to a team and communicated (anonymously) with other members by sending predefined messages. Teamwork processes were measured by examining message usage. Each message was categorized as belonging to one of six team processes: (1) adaptability; (2) communication; (3) coordination; (4) decision making; (5) interpersonal; and (6) leadership. Team performance was measured by scoring each team's knowledge map using four expert maps as the criterion. No significant correlation was found between team processes and team outcomes. This unexpected finding may be due in part to a split-attention effect resulting from the design of the user interface. However, student teams were able to construct knowledge maps successfully, suggesting that the general approach to using networked computers to measure group processes remains viable. Two appendixes contain messages grouped by category and message content and the handout describing messages. (Contains 17 tables and 21 references.) (Author/SLD)

Coleman, E. B. (1999). “Using explanatory knowledge during collaborative problem solving in science.” Journal of the Learning Sciences 7(3 and 4): 387-427.
Evaluates the effects of the scaffold explanation-based approach to collaborative discussion on students' understanding of photosynthesis. Forty-eight fourth- and fifth-grade students were divided into groups of high, average control (AC), and average intervention (AI). Students worked collaboratively and individually on two reasoning tasks. Results indicated that the AI students developed a more accurate scientific and functional understanding than did the AC group. (Author/SJR)

Cooke, N. J. (1992). “Eliciting semantic relations for empirically derived networks.” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 37: 721-750.

Cooke, N. J. (1994). “Varieties of knowledge elicitation techniques.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 41: 801-849.

Cooke, N. J. and Rowe, A. L. (1994). Evaluating mental model elicitation methods. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA.

Cooke, N., Neville, K. and Rowe, A. (1996). “Procedural Network Representations of Sequential Data.” Human-Computer Interaction 11: 29-68.

Cullen, J. (1990). “Using concept maps in chemistry: An alternative view.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1067-1068.
Provides examples of how concept mapping can be used to help overcome misconceptions in college chemistry. (PR)

Czuchry, M. and Dansereau, D. (1996). “Node-link mapping as an alternative to traditional writing assignments in undergraduate psychology courses.” Teaching of Psychology 23(2): 91-96.
Explores the usefulness of an alternative writing approach using a spatial-verbal technique called node-link mapping. In this process the student diagrams nodes, which contain key ideas and propositions, and links, which convey relations such as, leads to, part of, and example. Includes diagrams and examples. (MJP)

Davis, R., Shrobe, H. and Szolovits, P. (1993). “What is knowledge representation.” The AI Magazine 14(Spring): 17-33.

De Simone, C. and Oka, E. (1999). “Making connections efficiently: a comparison of two approaches used by college students to construct networks.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 24: 55-69.

Dodson, D. (1989). Interaction with knowledge systems through connection diagrams: please adjust your diagrams. Reseach and Development in Expert Systems V. B. a. R. Kelly, A. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Dorsey, D. W., Campbell, G., Foster, L. and Miles, D. (1999). “Assessing knowledge structures: Relations with experience and posttraining performance.” Human Performance 12(1): 31-57.

Edmondson, K. and Novak, J. (1993). “The interplay of scientific epistemological views, learning strategies, and attitudes of college students.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(6): 547-559.

Edmondson, K. M. (1994). “Concept maps and the development of cases for problem-based learning.” Academic Medicine 69(2): 108-110.
Concept maps are used at the Cornell University (New York) college of veterinary medicine for curriculum planning, particularly development of problem-based cases for classroom use. The maps help prioritize concepts, refine objectives and details, articulate links between aspects of a case, and support overall course design. (MSE)

Edmondson, K. M. (1995). “Concept mapping for the development of medical curricula.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 32(7): 777-793.
Presents concept mapping as an effective tool for developing an integrated curriculum. Includes examples of concept maps that represent an entire veterinary curriculum, specific courses, and case-based exercises. (21 references) (Author/JRH)

Edwards, J. and Fraser, K. (1983). “Concept maps as reflections of conceptual understanding.” Research in Science Education 13: 19-26.

Eklund, J., Sawers, J. and Zeiliger, R. (1999). NESTOR Navigator: A tool for the collaborative construction of knowledge through constructive navigation. AUSWEB 99, The 5th Austrailian World Wide Web Conference, Southern Cross University Press, Lismore.

Ertmer, P. and Newby, T. (1996). “The expert learner: Strategic, self-regulated and reflective.” Instructional Science 24: 1-24.

Esiobu, G. and Soyibo, K. (1995). “Effects of concept and vee mapping under three learning modes on students' cognitive achievement in ecology and genetics.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 32(9): 971-995.
Verified the efficacy of concept and Vee mapping heuristics under cooperative, cooperative-competitive, and individualistic whole-class learning conditions in improving (n=808) eighth graders' achievement in ecology and genetics. Experimental groups achieved significantly better than the control groups; students in cooperative-competitive experimental group scored the best. (Author/MKR)

Falkenheimer, B., Forbus, K. D. and Gentner, D. (1990). “The structure-mapping engine: Algorithm and examples.” Artificial Intelligence 41: 1-63.

Fenker, R. (1975). “The organization of conceptual materials: a methodology for measuring ideal and actual cognitive structures.” Instructional Science 4: 33-57.

Ferry, B., Hedberg, J. and Harper, B. (1998). “How do preservice teachers use concept maps to organize their curriculum content knowledge.” Journal of Interactive Learning Research 9(1): 83-104.
Reports on preservice teachers' use of a concept-mapping tool to create/modify concept maps about science- related elementary curriculum-content knowledge. Data from interviews, journals, and analysis of the concept maps showed how the preservice teachers used the tool to construct their curriculum-content knowledge in the form of more powerful integrated patterns. The process enhanced their skills in planning instruction. (Author/AEF)

Fisher, K. M., Wandersee, J. and Wideman, G. (2000). Enhancing cognitive skills for meaningful understanding of domain specific knowledge. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

Fisher, K. M., Wandersee, J. H. and Moody, D. (in press). Mapping Biology Knowledge. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Forbus, K. D., Ferguson, R. W. and Gentner, D. (1994). Incremental structure-mapping. Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Ford, K. M., Cañas, A., Jones, J., Stahl, H., Novak, J. D. and Adams-Webber, J. (1991). “ICONKAT: An integrated constructivist knowledge acquisition tool.” Knowledge Acquisition 3: 215-236.

Ford, K. M., Cañas, A. J. and Coffey, J. C. (1993). Participatory Explanation. Sixth Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium, Ft. Lauderadale, FL.

Ford, K. M., Coffey, J. W., Cañas, A., Andrews, E. J. and Turne, C. W. (1996). “Diagnosis and explanation by a nuclear cardiology expert system.” International Journal of Expert Systems 9: 499-506.

Fraser, K. and Novak, J. D. (1998). “Managing the empowerment of employees to address issues of inter-employee cooperation, communication, and work redesign.” The Learning Organization 5(2): 109-119.

Gaines, B. and Shaw, M. (1995). “Concept maps as hypermedia components.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(3): 323-361.

Gaines, B. and Shaw, M. (1995). WebMap: Concept mapping on the web. Proceedings of WWW4: Fourth International World Wide Web Conference, Boston.

Gaines, B. and Shaw, M. (1995). Collaboration through concept maps. Proceedings of CSCL95: Computer Supported Cooperative Learning, Bloomington.

Glaser, R. (2000). Assessing Active Knowledge. Los Angeles, CA, CRESST: 1-12.

Goldsmith, T. E. and Davenport, D. M. (1990). Assessing the structural similarity of graphs. Pathfinder Associative Networks. R. Schaneveldt. Norwood, NJ, Ablex.

Gonzales, F. and Novak, J. D. (1993). Aprendizaje significativo technicas y apliciones. Madrid, Argentina, Editorial Cincels.A.

Gonzales, F., Moron, C. and Novak, J. D. (2001). Errors Conceptuales: Diagnosis, Tratamiento y Reflexiones. Pamplona, Ediciones Eunate.

Gordon, S. E., Schmierer, K. A. and Gill, R. T. (1993). “Conceptual graph analysis: Knowledge acquisition for instructional systems design.” Human Factors 35: 459-481.

Gubrud, A. and Novak, J. (1973). “Learning achievement and the efficiency of learning the concept of vector addition at three different grade levels.” Science Education 57(2): 179-191.
Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

Hall, R., Dansereau, D. and Skaggs, L. (1992). “Knowledge maps and the presentation of related information domains.” Journal of Experimental Education 61(1): 5-18.
An experiment involving 92 college students was conducted to assess the relative effectiveness of multiple- relationship knowledge maps and traditional text for presentation of related information domains and to investigate comparative versus sequential presentations. Conditions under which knowledge maps were superior are discussed, and difficulties in replicating results are considered. (SLD)

Hall, R. H. and Blair, R. (1993). “Knowledge maps and spatial-verbal processing.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 77: 611-621.

Hall, R. and Sidio-Hall, M. (1994). “The effect of color enhancement on knowledge map processing.” Journal of Experimental Education 62(3): 209-217.
The effects of knowledge maps and color enhancement on the recall of text information was studied with 84 college students. Results suggest that color enhancement can be a powerful tool for increasing acquisition of textual information presented through a knowledge map or more traditional formats. (SLD)

Hall, R. (1997, October). Guided Surfing: Development and Assessment of a World Wide Web Interface for an Undergraduate Psychology Class. North American Web Developers Conference.

Hall, R. and Stocks, E. (1998). Guided Surfing: A Multimethod Assessment of a Layered Hypermap WWW Interface. WebNet98: World Conference on the WWW and Internet.

Hall, R., Hall, M. and Saling, C. (1999). “The effects of graphical postorganization strategies on learning from knowledge maps.” Journal of Experimental Education 67(2): 101-112.
Assessed the effects of postorganization activities on the acquisition of information presented in a knowledge- map format. Results from two experiments involving 145 college students suggest that postorganization activities that emphasize spatial encoding enhance the effectiveness of knowledge maps, especially with respect to superordinate concepts. (SLD)

Hall, R., Balestra, J. and Davis, M. (2000). A navigational analysis of linear and non-linear hypermedia interfaces. American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Heinze-Fry, J. and Novak, J. (1990). “Concept mapping brings long-term movement toward meaningful learning.” Science Education 74(4): 461-472.
Discussed is the use of concept mapping as a tool to enhance meaningful learning for college autotutorial biology students. Student attitudes toward concept mapping is described. The correlation between SAT scores and concept mapping was investigated. (KR)

Herl, H., Baker, E. and Niemi, D. (1996). “Construct validation of an approach to modelling cognitive structure of U.S. history knowledge.” Journal of Educational Research 89(4): 206-218.
This research applied evolving conceptions of learning to examine how to represent and evaluate students' and experts' cognitive structures. High school history students completed several tasks. Direct comparisons of the quality of student maps with expert maps showed that experts' concept maps could be used to score students' concept maps reliably. (SM)

Herl, H. E., O'Neil, H. F., Chung, G. K. W. K. and Schachter, J. (1999). “Reliability and validity of a computer-based knowledge mapping system to measure content understanding.” Computers in Human Behavior 15: 315-333.
Presents results from two computer-based knowledge-mapping studies developed by the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST): in one, middle and high school students constructed group maps while collaborating over a network, and in the second, students constructed individual maps while searching the Web. Contains 55 references. (Author/LRW)

Herl, H., O'Neil, H., Chung, G., Bianchi, C., Wang, S., Mayer, R., Lee, C., Choi, A., Suen, T. and Tu, A. (1999). Final Report for Validation of Problem Solving Measures. Los Angeles, CA, CRESST: 1-78.

Horton, P. B., McConney, A. A., Gallo, M., Woods, A. L., Senn, G. J. and Hamelin, D. (1993). “An investigation of the effectiveness of concept mapping as an instructional tool.” Science Education 77(1): 95-111.
Reports results of metanalysis of 19 studies on concept mapping (CM) in science instruction. Results showed CM has positive effects on student achievement and attitudes. Differences in achievement depended on science content class, with biology being most favored. Smaller differences in achievement were found when CM groups were compared to a placebo group rather than traditional control group. (PR)

Jonassen, D. and Wang, S. (1993). “Acquiring structural knowledge from semantically structured hypertext.” Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 20(1): 1-8.
Discussion of hypertext structures focuses on three studies of preservice teachers that assessed the effects of different methods of explicitly mapping expert knowledge structures onto hypertext on the acquisition of structural knowledge. Topics addressed include time on task, semantic networking, cognitive limitations of browsing behavior, and hypertext literacy. (23 references) (LRW)

Jonassen, D. H., Beissner, K. and Yacci, M. (1993). Structural knowledge: Techniques for representing, conveying and acquiring structural knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Jonassen, D. H. (1993). Effects of systematically structured hypertext knowledge bases on users' knowledge structures. Hypertext: A psychological perspective. C. McKnight, A. Dillon and J. Richardson. Chichester, UK, Ellis Horwood: 153-168.

Jonassen, D. and Marra, R. (1994). “Concept maps and other formalisms as Mindtools for representing knowledge.” ALT-J 2(1): 50-56.

Jonassen, D. H. (1996). Computers in the classroom: Mindtools for critical thinking. Englewoods, NJ, Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Jones, M. G., Carter, G. and Rua, M. (1999). “Children's Concepts: Tools for Transforming Science Teachers' Knowledge.” Science Education 83(5): 545-557.
Examines the role that students' science concepts play in promoting teachers' professional growth. Journals and portfolios showed that students' science knowledge served as discrepant events that evoked teachers' dissatisfaction with their own content knowledge and motivated them to reconsider their pedagogical practices. (Author/CCM)

Kinchin, I. and Hay, D. (2000). “How a qualitative approach to concept map analysis can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development.” Educational Research 42(1): 43-57.
Classification of concept maps made in British science classes resulted in three patterns that indicate students' progressive levels of understanding. The classification method analyzes hierarchy, processes, complexity, conceptual development, and representation. It suggests teaching approaches based on students' existing concept structures. (SK)

Kinchin, I. M. (2000). “Using Concept Maps To Reveal Understanding: A Two-Tier Analysis.” School Science Review 81(296): 41-46.
Finds that the construction of concept maps may help students make links between scientific concepts and related topic areas. Describes different methods of concept map analysis which illustrate different levels of conceptual development. (CCM)

Kinnear, J., Martin, M. and Novak, J. (1982). “Computer simulation and concept development in students of genetics.” Research in Science Education 12: 89-96.

Kinnear, J. (1986). Computer Simulation & Problem Solving in Genetics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (70th, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1986)., ED272370 (ERIC Document).
Problem solving is an essential skill in the study of genetics. Genetics problems have traditionally come from laboratory activities and textbook situations. Recently computer-based problems have been available to complement these standard sources. This report focusses on the use of computer-based problems in the study of genetics. Discriptions and comparisons of textbook, laboratory, and computer-based problems are stated and an explanation is given of how college students (N=68) performed in completing and understanding computer-based problem-solving tasks. Examples of problems involving dominance and linkage concepts are presented. The study results suggest that computer-based problems can encourage productive rather than reproductive thinking and thus facilitate meaningful rather than rote learning of genetic concepts. It is believed that this type of learning experience confronts student misconceptions, identifies inadequacies in student problem-solving skills, and provides a productive context in which students can develop and refine their skills. A 23-item list of references is appended. (ML)

Kinnear, J. (1994). What Science Education Really Says about Communication of Science Concepts. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association (44th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, July 11-15, 1994)., ED372455 (ERIC Document).
A number of strategies, informed by science education research, have been identified to assist the understanding and communication of difficult concepts in science. A teacher's craft lies in creating learning experiences that facilitate concept development and challenge misconceptions from which students actively build, modify, and extend their conceptual understanding. Concept mapping is accepted as one of several research and evaluation tools that are valid devices for assessing conceptual change. Concept mapping has also been identified by teachers and researchers as a tool for assisting teachers to organize their teaching strategies. Conceptual understanding is influenced by the prior knowledge brought by students to learning situations. Effective teaching entails recognizing students' prior knowledge including any alternative frameworks and adopting teaching strategies to acknowledge those frameworks. Scientific facts, if learned in a meaningful, rather than rote, manner produce much in students' minds. Having identified their students' prior learning, educators are then faced with the challenge of creating learning experiences to facilitate meaningful learning and conceptual understanding. Meaningful communication of concepts can be taught through the use of contexts and case studies; discrepant events (when a mismatch exists between the preconceptions that students bring to a learning situation); analogies, metaphors, and similes; examples and non-examples; and multiple representations of verbal and nonverbal information. Four tables and two figures illustrating aspects of the various teaching methods are included. (Contains 36 references.) (RS)

Kinnear2, J. (1986). Computer Simulation and Problem Solving in Genetics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (70th, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1986)., ED272370 (ERIC Document).
Problem solving is an essential skill in the study of genetics. Genetics problems have traditionally come from laboratory activities and textbook situations. Recently computer-based problems have been available to complement these standard sources. This report focusses on the use of computer-based problems in the study of genetics. Discriptions and comparisons of textbook, laboratory, and computer-based problems are stated and an explanation is given of how college students (N=68) performed in completing and understanding computer-based problem-solving tasks. Examples of problems involving dominance and linkage concepts are presented. The study results suggest that computer-based problems can encourage productive rather than reproductive thinking and thus facilitate meaningful rather than rote learning of genetic concepts. It is believed that this type of learning experience confronts student misconceptions, identifies inadequacies in student problem-solving skills, and provides a productive context in which students can develop and refine their skills. A 23-item list of references is appended. (ML)

Kuhn, D. and Novak, J. (1971). “A study of cognitve subsumption in the life sciences.” Science Education 55(3): 309-320.
In two investigations students who read an "organizer" before studying biological material scored higher after the learning sessions, and on retention tests, than students who read an historical passage prior to instruction. (AL)

Kulhavy, R., Stock, W. and Caterino, L. (1994). Reference maps as a framework for remembering text. Comprehension of Graphics. W. Schnotz and R. Kulhavy.

Lambiotte, J., Dansereau, D., Cross, D. and Reynolds, S. (1989). “Multirelational semantic maps.” Educational Psychology Review 1(4): 331-367.

Lambiotte, J. and Dansereau, D. (1992). “Effects of knowledge maps and prior knowledge on recall of science lecture content.” Journal of Experimental Education 60(3): 189-201.
Effects of knowledge maps, outlines, or lists of key terms on recall by 74 undergraduates (29 males and 45 females) of 2 biology lectures were compared. The hypothesized advantage of maps over outlines or lists was not found generally, but it was found for students low in prior knowledge. (SLD)

Lambiotte, J., Skaggs, L. and Dansereau, D. (1993). “Learning from lectures: Effects of knowledge maps and cooperative review strategies.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 7: 483-497.

Lowe, R. (1996). “Background knowledge and the construction of a situational representation from a diagram.” European Journal of the Psychology of Education 11(4): 377-397.
Shows that the construction of mental representations that capture a situation based on the comprehension of a diagram are mediated by the possession of appropriate background knowledge. Indicates that background knowledge deficiencies may make it difficult for beginning students of a domain to construct suitable mental representations from domain-related diagrams. (DSK)

Lui, X. and Hinchey, M. (1996). “The internal consistency of a concept mapping scoring scheme and its effect on prediction validity.” International Journal of Science Education 18(8): 921-937.

MacGregor, S. K. (1999). “Hypermedia Navigation Profiles: Cognitive Characteristics and Information Processing Strategies.” Journal of Educational Computing Research 20(2): 189-206.
Videotaped observations were made of seventh and eleventh grade students using an instructional hypermedia system. Three profiles of hypermedia navigation emerged with each style characterized by distinct information processing strategies. Analysis of the characteristics of learners revealed that students within each profile group had similar levels of prior knowledge, need for cognition, and self-efficacy. Contains 33 references. (Author/AEF)

MacKay, N. (1997). “Constructivism and the logic of explanation.” Journal of Constructivist Psychology 10: 339-361.

Mahler, S., Hoz, R., Fischl, D., Tov-Ly, E. and Lernau, O. Z. (1991). “Didactic use of concept mapping in higher education: Applications in medical education.” Instructional Science 20(1): 25-47.

Markham, K. and Mintzes, J. (1994). “The concept map as a research and evaluation tool: Further evidence of validity.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(1): 91-101.
Describes a study that examines the extent to which differences exist in the concept maps of advanced college biology majors (n=25) and beginning nonmajors (n=25) in the domain of mammals. Results indicate that the concept maps of biology majors are structurally more complex than those of nonmajors. (ZWH)

Martin, B., Mintzes, J. J. and Clavijo, I. (2000). “Restructuring knowledge in biology: Cognitive processes and metacognitive reflections.” International Journal of Science Education 22(3): 303-323.

Mayer, M. A. and Booker, J. M. (1990). Eliciting and analyzing expert judgement. Washington DC, Division of Systems Research, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commision.

Mayer, R. (1997). “Multimedia learning: are we asking the right questions.” Educational Psychologist 32(1): 1-19.

McAleese, R. (1987). “The graphical representation of knowledge as an interface to knowledge based systems.” Human-Computer Interation INTERACT '87: 1089-1093.

McAleese, R. (1988). From Concept Maps to Computer Based Learning: The Experience of NoteCards. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 5-9, 1988).
This paper begins with a description of the context and background of cognitive research into knowledge acquisition and representation for computer based training. The nature of concept maps is alluded to and examples are given of the ways that maps can facilitate knowledge elicitation. It is noted that: (1) the concept knowledge in this research is acquired and reported by a hypertext system called NoteCards; (2) NoteCards is used as a pre-processor to computer based training applications, and the metaphorical structure created by NoteCards and displayed to browsers is used in hypertext navigation; and (3) visual examples of concepts are held on a videodisc attached to the workstation that runs NoteCards. It is concluded that NoteCards provides a useful environment for experimenting with knowledge elicitation and providing a trainee/learner-based interrupt interface to computer based training. The six figures provided include concept maps, an equipment layout diagram, and a hypertext explanation and video picture. (19 references)

McAleese, R. (1994). “A theoretical view on concept mapping.” ALT-J 2(1): 38-48.

McAleese, R. (1998). “The knowledge arena as an extension to the concept map: Reflection in action.” Interactive Learning Environments 6: 1-22.
This paper uses a theoretical framework for concept mapping as an instance of a learning environment - the knowledge arena - and examines it against an existing framework for active learning called REAL (Rich Environment for Active Learning). The paper is intended to help in the understanding of environments for learning. Section 1 defines a knowledge arena as a virtual space where learners can operate on ideas, or concepts. This engagement involves a concept map. Section 2 describes concept maps and their use. Section 3 focuses on concept mapping and how it facilitates concept development and reflection. Section 4 examines concept mapping attributes. Section 5 defines learning environments and notes the attributes of REALs. Section 6 focuses on knowledge arenas and REALs, highlighting two consequences of what can be learned by using the knowledge arena as an example of a learning environment (the knowledge arena facilitates communication, and concept mapping influences the acquisition of cognitive skills in a knowledge arena). The paper concludes that concept mapping, construed as a knowledge arena, makes a useful contribution to understanding REALs and understanding learning. Similarly, REALs provide a useful framework for understanding concept mapping. (Contains 56 references.) (SM)

McAleese, R. (1998). Coming to know: The role of the concept map - mirror, assistant, master. 1998 Euroconference, University of Aveiro, Portugal.
This paper explains the process of creating and managing concept maps, using reflection as a focus for its argument. Section 1, What is a Concept Map?, highlights the background and definition of concept mapping, explains how maps signify virtual conceptual structures, looks at structural knowledge, provides an example of a concept map, and discusses associationism. Section 2, Self-Regulation, focuses on self-regulation, which makes individuals goal directed and helps in implementing intentionality. It also discusses self- confrontation, which is the external juxtaposition of self-concept, feelings, or beliefs with some external physical manifestations of those feelings and beliefs. Section 3, Off-Loading, explains that off-loading occurs because of the limited capacity of working memory registers. Section 4, The Process of Concept Mapping, looks at phases in the construction of a concept map. Section 5, Mirror, Assistant or Master?, explains that this paper provided a tentative framework for the process involved in creating and maintaining concept maps, and it discusses the implications for learning and instructional design. (Contains approximately 64 references.) (SM)

McAleese, R. (1999). “Concept mapping - A critical review.” Innovations in Education and Training International 36(4): 351-363.

McCagg, E. a. D., D. (1991). “A convergent paradigm for examining knowledge mapping as a learning strategy.” Journal if Educational Research 84(6): 317-324.
Researchers examined the effects of student-generated knowledge maps as a learning strategy. Eighty-one college students learned to make knowledge maps then participated in in-class and out-of-class testing sessions. Mapping positively affected their performance on recognition and recall tests, positive effects which were maintained. (SM)

McClure, J., Sonak, B. and Suen, H. (1999). “Concept map assessment of classroom learning: reliability, validity and logistical practicality.” Journal of research in science teaching 36(4): 475-492.
Describes the evaluation of the characteristics and practicality of concept mapping as a technique for classroom assessment. Findings suggest that the time required to provide training in concept mapping, produce concepts, and score-concept maps is compatible with the adoption of concept mapping as a classroom-assessment technique. Contains 15 references. (Author/WRM)

McClure, J. R. (1999). Concept maps and the acquisition of cognitive skills: concept maps as a tool to study skill acquisition. American Educational Research Association.

McDonald, B. A. and Witten, I. H. (1989). “A framework for knowledge acquisition through techniques of concept learning.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics.

McDonald, S. and Stevenson, R. (1998). “Navigation in hyperspace: an evaluation of the effects of navigational tools and subject matter expertise on browsing and information retrieval in hypertext.” Interacting with Computers 10: 129-142.

McDonald, S. and Stevenson, R. (1999). “Spatial versus conceptual maps as learning tools in hypertext.” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 8(1): 43-64.
Describes two studies of college students that examined the effects of navigational aids on navigation and learning in hypertext. The first examined the effects of spatial maps and textual contents lists on students' ability to locate information; the second experiment compared a spatial map, a conceptual map and no aid on both navigation and learning. (Author/LRW)

McKeown, D. M. (1983). Concept maps. Pittsburgh, PA, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University.

Michael, E. and Martinez, M. E. (in press). Cognitive representations: Distinctions, implications and elaborations. The Development of Representational Thought: Theoretical Perspectives. I. Sigel. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum.

Mintzes, J. J., Wandersee, J. H. and Novak, J. D. (1997). Meaningful learning in science: The human constructivist perspective. Handbook of academic learning: Construction of knowledge. The educational psychology series. G. D. Phye, Ed; et al. San Diego, Academic Press, Inc: 405-447.

Mintzes, J. J., Wandersee, J. H. and Novak, J. D. (1998). Teaching Science for Understanding: A Human Constructivist View. San Diego, Academic Press.

Mintzes, J. J., Wandersee, J. H. and Novak, J. D. (2000). Assessing Science Understanding: A Human Constructivist View. San Diego, Academic Press.

Moore, P. and Scevak, J. (1994). Systematic forced processing of text and graphics. Comprehension of Graphics. W. Schnotz and W. Kulhavy, Elsevier Science.

Moreland, J., Dansereau, D. and Chmielewski, T. (1997). “Recall of descriptive information: The role of presentation format, annotation strategy, and individual differences.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 22: 521-533.

Murphy, L. and Suen, H. (1999). Validating measures of structural knowledge through the multitrait-multimethod matrix. American Educational Research Association, Montreal.

Nosek, J. T. and Roth, I. (1990). “A comparison of formal knowledge representation schemes as communication tools: Predicate logic versus semantic networks.” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 33: 227-239.

Novak, J. D. (1977). A theory of education. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.

Novak, J. (1979). “Applying pscyhology and philosophy to the improvement of laboratory teaching.” American Biology Teacher 41(8): 466-470.
Models, based on Gowin's Epistomenological V model, are presented which are intended to be useful in illustrating ideas to students about how knowledge is acquired and how to relate laboratory work to the concept being learned. (SA)

Novak, J. D. (1981). “Applying Learning Psychology and Philosophy of Science to Biology Teaching.” American Biology Teacher 43(1): 12-20.
Discusses applications of Ausubelian learning theory to the teaching of biology. The use of concept maps and Gowin's Epistemological V are described. Scoring methods and evaluation techniques are also discussed. (CS)

Novak, J. D. and Symington, D. (1982). “Concept mapping for curriculum development.” V.I.E.R. (The Victorian Institute of Educational Research) 48: 3-11.

Novak, J. D., Gowin, D. B. and Johansen, G. (1983). “The use of concept mapping and knowledge Vee mapping with junior high school science students.” Science Education 67(5): 625-645.

Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Novak, J. (1986). “The importance of emerging constructivist epistemology for mathematics education.” Journal of Mathematical Behavior 5(2): 181-184.

Novak, J. and Ridley, D. (1988). Assessing student learning in light of how students learn. American Association for Higher Education Forum, ERIC Document ED299923.

Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B. (1988). Apriendiendo a Apreender (Spanish). Barcelona, Martinez Roca.

Novak, J. D. and Ridley, D. R. (1988). Assessing Student Learning in Light of How Students Learn. ERIC Document ED299923.

Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B. (1989). Imparando a Imparare (Italian). Torino, Stabilimento Grafico.

Novak, J. and Gowin, D. B. (1989). Learning how to learn (in Thai). Bangkok, National Research Council.

Novak, J. (1990). “Concept maps and Vee diagrams: Two metacognitve tools to facilitate meaningful learning.” Instructional Science 19: 29-52.
Describes two metacognitive tools, concept mapping and Vee diagraming, and reports on classroom research utilizing these tools in grade one through university instruction. Psychological and epistemological foundations of these tools are discussed, and student attitude changes after using these tools are reported. (64 references) (LRW)

Novak, J. D. (1990). “Concept maps and Vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education.” Instructional Science 19: 29-52.

Novak, J. and Wandersee, J. (1990). “Perspectives on concept mapping: Special Issue of the Journal of Research on Science Teaching.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 921-1074.

Novak, J. D. (1991). “Clarify with concept maps: A tool for students and teachers alike.” The Science Teacher 58: 45-49.
Contrasts receptive learning (rote learning) with meaningful learning. Explains that people construct knowledge based on what they already know. Concept maps are used to organize and represent knowledge and help the learner construct new meanings in a subject. Gives examples of concept maps created by scientists. (18 references) (PR)

Novak, J. D. and Musonda, D. (1991). “A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning.” American Educational Research Journal 28(1): 117-153.

Novak, J. D. and Wandersee, J. H., Eds. (1991). Special Issue on Concept Mapping. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.

Novak, J. (1991). “Ayudar a los alumnos a aprendar como aprendar: la opinion de un profesor-investigador.” Ensenanza de Las Ciencias 9(3): 215-228.

Novak, J. D. (1992). Learning how to Learn (Japanese). Tokyo, Tokoyan Shuppansha.

Novak, J. (1993). “Human constructivism: A unification of psychological and epistemological phenomena in meaning making.” International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology 6: 167-193.

Novak, J. (1993). “How do we learn our lesson.” The Science Teacher 60(3): 51-55.

Novak, J. (1994). “A view on the current status of Ausubel's assimilation theory of learning or La teoria dell appendimento per assimilaziona di D.P. Ausubel. De propsettive attuali.” CADMO (Giornale Italiono di Pedagogia sperimentale, Didattica Docimologia, Tecnologia dell Instrusione) 2(4): 7-23.

Novak, J. D. (1995). Concept mapping: A strategy for organizing knowledge. Learning science in the schools: Research reforming practice. S. M. Glynn and R. e. a. Duit. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc,
Mahwah, NJ, USA: 229-245.

Novak, J. (1995). “Concept mapping to facilitate teaching and learning.” Prospects 25(1): 79-86.

Novak, J. D. and Iuli, R. (1995). Meaningful learning as the foundation for constructivist epistemology. Proceedings of the Third International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

Novak, J. and Gowin, D. B. (1995). Learning how to Learn (Arabic). Riyadh, King Saud University Press.

Novak, J. and Gowin, D. B. (1996). Learning how to learn (Finnish). Helsinki, Gaudeamus Kirja.

Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B. (1996). Aprender a Aprender (Portuguese). Lisbon, Plantano Edicionas Technicas.

Novak, J. D. (1998). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps(R) as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahweh, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
As illustrated by a concept map in chapter 1, this book discusses three concepts: (1) the nature of knowledge, its capture, creation, and use; (2) the nature of human learning; and (3) a theory of education tying together the first two concepts. Chapter 2 discusses the need for a theory of education to resolve numerous questions, issues, and problems faced in educating people to become powerful and committed knowledge creators and users. Chapter 3 defines meaningful learning and its fundamental elements: facts, concepts, propositions, and principles. Chapter 4 develops further how humans construct new meanings and the role played by concepts and propositions. Chapter 5 presents an account of David Ausubel's assimilation theory of meaningful learning. Chapter 6 presents a theory of knowledge and uses the Vee heuristic to illustrate it. Chapter 7 focuses on teacher and manager effectiveness, and chapter 8 deals with context issues associated with effective teaching. Chapter 9 treats evaluation, the most crucial element involved in educating or managing. Methods used to evaluate and reward learning and performance can enhance or undermine our best efforts. The last chapter speculates on future chances for enhanced educating and managing, given the snail's pace of teacher education and school reform efforts. Included are 71 figures, 5 tables, 2 appendices, and author and subject indices. (Contains 262 references.) (MLH)

Novak, J. and Gowin, D. B. (in press). “Learning how to Learn (Chinese).”.

O'Donnell, A. (1993). “Searching for information in knowledge maps and texts.” Contempory Educational Psychology 18: 222-239.

O'Donnell, A. (1994). “Learning from knowledge maps: The effects of map orientation.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 19: 33-44.
Effects of the orientation of knowledge maps on learning were studied with 28 undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to study maps presented vertically or horizontally. Performance of high and low vocabulary subjects was evaluated. Low vocabulary subjects who used linear maps performed more poorly than any other group. (SLD)

O'Neil, H. and Abedi, J. (1996). Reliability and validity of a state metacognitive inventory: Potential for alternative assessment. Los Angeles, CA, CRESST: 1-27.
Describes research on the development of a measure of student metacognition. The brief, domain-independent measure serves as a collateral measure in construct validation, supporting exploration of the self-regulatory demands of performance assessment. Results show that metacognition can be directly and explicitly measured in the context of alternative assessment. (SM)

Okebukola, P. A. and Jegede, O. J. (1988). “Cognitive preference and learning mode as determinants of meaningful learning through concept mapping.” Science Education 72(4): 489-500.
Describes a study designed to compare student success in a concept mapping exercise with the cognitive preference of the student, and to determine whether students achieve better using individualistic or cooperative learning modes in the concept mapping exercise. Discusses the background, methodology and results. (CW)

Okebukola, P. A. (1992). “Can good concept mappers be good problem solvers in science?” Educational Psychology 12(2): 113-129.
Describes a study of concept mapping as a means of learning problem-solving skills. Concludes that the concept mapping subjects were significantly more successful at solving biological test questions than were the controls. Reports no significant differences between cooperative and individual mapping and mixed results for gender. (DK)

Osmundson, E., Chung, G., Herl, H. and Klein, D. (1999). Knowledge mapping in the classroom: A tool for examining the development of students' conceptual understandings. Los Angeles, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing: 1-42.

Oughten, J. M. and Reed, W. M. (1999). “The influence of learner differences on the construction of hypermedia concepts: a case study.” Computers in Human Behavior 15: 11-50.
Focuses on three students engaged in a group task to develop a concept map on hypermedia-related concepts. Examines how each of the students--grouped together based on their learning style and cognitive control differences--influenced construction of the group concept map. Concludes that the "Assimilator/Field- Independent" student was the most influential. (AEF)

Pankratius, W. J. (1990). “Building an organized knowledge base: Concept mapping and achievement in secondary school physics.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(4): 315-333.
Investigated was the effect of concept mapping on science achievement. It was concluded that mapping concepts prior to, during, and subsequent to instruction led to greater achievement. (CW)

Parkes, J. (1999). Structural knowledge as a pre-requisite to valid performance assessment scores. American Educational Research Association.
Structural knowledge is a pre-requisite to valid performance assessment scores because structural knowledge leads to better transfer. Better transfer will cause consistency to occur between task performances for a given individual, and this consistency allows for less construct-irrelevant variance and more construct- relevant variance to be present in the scores. This means more valid scores. This paper provides empirical support for each link in this argument. Concept maps are used as representations of the structural knowledge taught in a Political Science I course. Students in that course (approximately 325 students) were assessed using an essay performance assessment. Those students in the concept-mapping condition are shown to write more consistent essays than those who do not use a concept map while writing. That is, the amount of task- related variance is related to the immediacy of having constructed a concept map. Structural knowledge is, therefore, a pre-requisite to valid performance assessment. (Contains 1 figure, 5 tables, and 88 references.) (Author/SLD)

Pearsall, N. R., Skipper, J. and Mintzes, J. (1997). “Knowledge restructuring in the life sciences: a longitudinal study of conceptual change in biology.” Science Education 81(2): 193-215.
Describes a study that examined changes in the structural complexity of knowledge held by two groups of introductory college-level biology students (N=68, N=93). The subjects constructed concept maps at four-week intervals throughout the instructional term. Contains 49 references. (DDR)

Pendley, B., Bretz, R. and Novak, J. (1994). “Concept maps as a tool to assess instruction in chemistry.” Journal of Chemical Education 70(1): 9-15.
Identifies some of the major factors underlying common problems that students have in acquiring an understanding of chemistry concepts. Suggests and discusses the use of concept maps as an aid in ensuring that meaningful learning rather than rote learning has occurred among students. Contains 32 references. (ZWH)

Postlethwait, S. N., Novak, J. D. and Murray, H. T. J. (1972). The Audio-tutorial approach to learning. Minneapolis, MN, Burgess.

Reader, W. and Hammond, N. (1994). “Computer-based tools to support learning from hypertext: Concept mapping tools and beyond.” Computer Education 22(1-2): 99-106.
Reports the results of a study conducted at the University of York (England) that was designed to test the effectiveness of a concept mapping tool in aiding student learning from a hypertext-based computer-assisted instruction system. Effects on learning are compared with standard notetaking through results of a posttest. (Contains 17 references.) (LRW)

Reicherzer, T., Cañas, A. J., Ford, K. M. and Hayes, P. (1998, August). The Giant: A Classroom Collaborator. Proceedings of the Workshop on Pedogogical Agents, San Antonio, TX.

Reicherzer, T., Cañas, A. J., Ford, K. M. and Hayes, P. (1998, May). The Giant: An agent-based approach to knowledge construction and sharing. Proceedings of the Eleventh Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Symposium, Sanibel Island, Florida.

Rewey, K., Dansereau, D., Dees, S., Skaggs, L. and Pitre, U. (1989). “Scripted cooperation and knowledge map supplements: Effects on the recall of biological and statistical information.” Journal of Experimental Education 60(2): 93-107.

Rewey, K., Dansereau, D. and Peel, J. (1991). “Knowledge maps and information processing strategies.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 16(3): 203-214.

Reynolds, S. and Dansereau, D. (1990). “The knowledge hypermap: An alternative to hypertext.” Computers in Education 14(5): 409-416.
Explains the combination of hypertext and knowledge maps into hypermaps, and describes a study of undergraduates learning statistical material that compared the effectiveness of using hypertext versus hypermaps. Recall, reference time and accuracy, and student satisfaction are investigated, and needs for further studies are suggested. (10 references) (LRW)

Rice, D., Ryan, J. and Samson, S. (1998). “Using Concept Maps to Assess Student Learning in the Science Classroom: Must Different Methods Compete?” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(10): 1103-1127.
Reports on a year-long study implemented in grade seven life-science classes with the students' regular teacher serving as a teacher researcher. Results suggest that concept mapping may be useful in assessing declarative and procedural knowledge. Contains 43 references. (DDR)

Ring, D. and Novak, J. (1971). “The effects of cognitive structure variables on achievement in college chemistry.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 8(4): 325-333.
College freshmen chemistry students who performed best on the course examinations possessed both relevant facts and relevant subsuming concepts. This conclusion supports Ausubel's theory of learning. The presence of facts unorganized by subsumers had little facilitating effect on learning of new materials. (AL)

Robinson, D., Robinson, S. and Katayama, A. (1999). “When words are represented in memory like pictures: evidence for spatial encoding of study materials.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 24(1): 38-54.

Rodi, L. L., Pierce, J. A. and Dalton, R. E. (1989, April). Putting the expert in charge: Graphical knowledge acquisition for fault diagnosis and repair. SIGART Newsletter. New York, Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence, Association for Computing Machinery: 56-62.

Roth, W. and Roychoudhury, A. (1993). “The concept map as a tool for the collaborative construction of knowledge: A microanalysis of high school physics students.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(5): 503-554.
Among the conclusions from an microanalysis of 29 high school physics student's concept mapping behaviors were that concept maps lead to sustained discourse on the topic and improved declarative knowledge. On the negative side, concept maps let scientifically incorrect notions become ingrained and go unchallenged. (PR)

Roth, W. and Roychoudhury, A. (1993). “The social construction of scientific concepts or the concept map as conscription device and tool for social thinking in high school science.” Science Education 76(5): 531-557.
Describes the practice of concept mapping, the student-student and student-teacher interactions, and cognitive activity occurring in participants. Authors conclude that concept mapping is an excellent activity that allows students to engage in extended science discourse. The maps provide students with a means to learn the language patterns of science and construct scientific knowledge. (57 references) (PR)

Roth, W. (1994). “Student views of collaborative concept mapping: An emancipatory research project.” Science Education 78(1): 1-34.
Forty-six students enrolled in a high school physics course participated in a study designed to portray student views on, and understanding of, collaborative concept mapping. Students demonstrated a good understanding of concept maps and emphasized their usefulness as a learning tool. (56 references) (ZWH)

Roth, W. and Roychoudhury, A. (1994). “Science discourse through collaborative concept mapping: New perspectives for the teacher.” International Journal of Science Education 16(4): 437-455.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A. and Shavelson, R. J. (1996). “ Problems and issues in the use of concept maps in science assessment.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 33(6): 569-600.
Examines the validity of claims that concept maps measure an important aspect of students' knowledge structures. Provides a working definition of concept mapping and a brief theoretical background, characterizes concept maps as a potential assessment in science, reviews empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of various concept mapping techniques, and identifies areas for further research. Contains 57 references. (JRH)

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., Shavelson, R. J. and Schultz, S. E. (1997). On the validity of concept map-based assessment interventions: An experiment testing the assumption of hierarchical maps in science. Los Angeles, CA, Center for the Study of Evalutation, Standards and Student Testing.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., Schultz, S. E., Li, M. and Shavelson, R. J. (1998). Comparison of the reliability and validity of scores from two concept mapping techniques. Los Angeles, CA, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing.
A concept map is a graph in which the nodes represent concepts, the lines between the nodes represent relations, and the labels on the lines represent the nature of the relations. Concept maps have been used to assess students' knowledge structures, especially in science education. Two concept mapping techniques, constructing a map and filling in a map that has been started were compared to see if the mapping techniques can be considered equivalent, whether the fill-in-the-map techniques are sensitive to the nodes selected to be completed, and whether the fill-in-the-map scores are sensitive to the linking lines selected to be filled-in. Participants were 152 high school chemistry students in 7 classes taught by 2 teachers. On three occasions students constructed or filled in maps as directed. The fill-in (skeleton) map scores were not sensitive to the sample of nodes or linking lines to be filled in. Fill-in-the-nodes and fill-in-the-lines are not equivalent forms of fill-in-the-map, but further research is needed to determine which of these forms provides more accurate information. Results suggest that both mapping techniques are tapping somewhat similar, but not identical, aspects of students' understanding. Construct-a-map scores more accurately reflect the differences across students' knowledge structures, and the relationship between scores from the multiple-choice test and both mapping techniques confirms that the mapping techniques are not equivalent. (Contains 6 tables and 15 references.) (SLD)

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., Schultz, S. E. and Shavelson, R. J. (1999). On the cognitive validity of interpretations of scores from alternative concept mapping techniques. Los Angeles, CA, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing.
The validity of connected understanding interpretation of three concept mapping techniques was studied, focusing on the correspondence between mapping-intended task demands, inferred cognitive activities, and scores obtained. The concurrent and retrospective verbalizations of subjects at different levels of competency as they performed the mapping task were studied, and the directedness of the mapping tasks, the characteristics of the verbalizations, and the scores were compared. Subjects were nine chemistry students and two chemistry teachers. The three mapping techniques were: (1) construct a map from scratch; (2) fill in the nodes of a skeleton map; and (3) fill in the linking lines. The three mapping techniques provided different pictures of student knowledge. With high-directed techniques (fill-in-the-map), students' knowledge was close to the maximum criterion, but with a low-directed technique (construct-the-map), students' knowledge was revealed as partial. Low-directed tasks seemed to provide students with more opportunities to reflect their actual conceptual understanding. In addition, the magnitude of the correlation between construct-a-map and fill-in-the-lines scores was much higher than that observed in previous studies. An appendix contains a table of verbal units by subcategory, group, and assessment. (Contains 16 references.) (SLD

Ruiz-Primo, M. A., Schultz, S. E., Li, M. and Shavelson, R. J. (2001). “Comparison of the reliability and validity scores from two concept-mapping techniques.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 38(2): 260-278.

Schaneveldt, R. (1990). Pathfinder Associative Networks: Studies in Knowledge Orgainzation. Norwood NJ, Ablex.

Schroeder, E. and Grabowski, B. (1995). “Patterns of Exploration and Learning with Hypermedia.” Journal of Educational Computing Research 13(4): 313-335.
Describes a study of undergraduates that compared navigational study strategies, the extent of lesson coverage, and attitudes about learning with three types of hypermedia lessons to examine how learners use different types of graphical browsers in a learner-controlled hypertext system to construct personalized representations of the content knowledge. (Author/LRW)

Sharples, M. (1991). “Computer-based tutoring of visual concepts: From novice to expert.” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 7: 123-132.
Description of ways in which computers might be used to teach visual concepts discusses hypermedia systems; describes computer-generated tutorials; explains the use of computers to create learning aids such as concept maps, feature spaces, and structural models; and gives examples of visual concept teaching in medical education. (10 references) (LRW)

Sowa, J. F. (1984). Conceptual structures: Information processing in mind and machine. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley.

Stanton, N., Taylor, R. and Tweedie, L. (1992). “Maps as navigational aids in hypertext environments.” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 1(4): 431-444.
Describes a study of undergraduates at Aston University (United Kingdom) that investigated whether maps were an appropriate navigational aid for searching in a hypertext environment. Task performance, system use, previous computer experience, perceptions of the system, and cognitive map data are examined; and implications for hypertext system designers are suggested. (23 references) (LRW)

Starr, M. L. and Krajcik, J. S. (1990). “Concept maps as a heuristic for science curriculum development: Towards improvement in process and product.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 987-1000.
Outlines the use of concept maps as a tool for science curriculum development and discusses the changes that occur in the teacher's view of the curriculum with successive revisions of the maps. Describes and analyzes the maps created by sixth-grade teachers. (PR)

Stewart, H. A. (1985). “Should concept maps be scored numerically?” European Journal of Science Education 7(1): 73-81.

Suen, H. K., Sonak, B., Zimmaro, D. and Roberts, D. M. (1997). “Concept map as scaffolding for authentic assessment.” Psychological Reports Vol 81(3): 734.

Sutcliffe, A. (1985). Use of conceptual maps as human-computer interfaces. Proceedings of the British Computer Society.

Swensvold, M. S. and Wilson, J. T. (1990). “The interaction of verbal ability with concept mapping in learning from a chemistry laboratory activity.” Science Education 74(4): 474-480.
The relationship between concept mapping and comprehension was investigated in conjunction with science instructional laboratories. Measured were student skills and aptitudes applying aptitude treatment interaction procedures to investigate interactions between a concept mapping treatment and student aptitudes. (KR

Thorsland, M. and Novak, J. (1974). “The identification and significance of intuitive and analytic problem solving approaches among college students.” Science Education 58(2): 245-265.
Described is an approach to assessment of intuitive and analytic modes of thinking in physics. These modes of thinking are associated with Ausubel's theory of learning. High ability in either intuitive or analytic thinking was associated with success in college physics, with high learning efficiency following a pattern expected on the basis of Ausubel's theory. (PEB)

Verdi, M., Johnson, J., Stock, W., Kulhavy, R. and Whitman-Ahern, P. (1997). “Organized spatial displays and texts: effects of presentation order and display type on learning outcomes.” Journal of Experimental Education 65(4): 303-317.
In two experiments, students were shown a visual display and then a related text passage, or vice versa, to determine which condition improved recall. Results with 100 undergraduates and 112 middle school students supported the expected outcome of improved recall when the display preceded the text. (SLD)

Wallace, J. and Mintzes, J. (1990). “The concept map as a research tool: Exploring conceptual change in biology.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 1033-1052.
Reports a study examining the concurrent validity of concept maps as vehicles for documenting and exploring conceptual change in biology. Elementary education science methods students who were instructed on marine life zones showed significant differences on their concept maps on this topic. (PR)

Wandersee, J. H. (1990). “Concept mapping and the cartography of cognition.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(10): 923-936.
Because concept maps are designed to find out what the learner knows about a subject and are, in effect, maps of cognition, this article synthesizes relevant facts, concepts, and principles from cartography and applies them to concept mapping. The metaphor of the map and its applicability for representing scientific concepts are discussed. (PR)

West, C. D., Pomeroy, J. R., Park, J. K., Gerstenberger, E. A. and Sandoval, J. (2000). “Critical thinking in graduate medical education: A role for concept mapping assessment.” Journal of the American Medical Association 284(9): 1105-1110.

Wiegmann, D., Dansereau, D., McCagg, E., Rewey, K. and Pitre, U. (1992). “Effects of knowledge map characteristics on information processing.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 17: 136-155.
Three experiments involving 102 college students examined the impact of knowledge map configuration on acquisition of information. Variations in spatial configuration, map format, and link structure affected encoding and retrieval of information. These effects were mediated by the users' spatial and verbal abilities. (SLD)

Willerman and Mac Harg (1991). “The concept map as an advance organizer.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 28(8): 705-711.
A control group of 40 eighth graders completed a unit on elements and compounds. An experimental group of 42 completed concept maps on the same topic. Results of a one-tailed T test demonstrated the usefulness of concept maps as advance organizers. (KR)

Williams, K. and Marek, E. (2000). Ausubel and Piaget: a contemporary investigation. ERIC Document ED441687.

Wilson, J. (1994). “Network representations of knowledge of chemical equilibrium: variations with achievement.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 31(10): 1133-1147.
Examines variation in the organization of domain-specific knowledge by chemistry students (n=50) and chemistry teachers (n=4), by investigating individual and group differences in student concept maps about chemical equilibrium. Presents a suitable methodology for comparing and documenting changes in the organization and structure of conceptual knowledge within and between individual students. (ZWH)

Young, M. J. (1998). Quanitifying the characteristics of knowledge structure representations: A lattice-theoretic framework. Pittsburgh, PA, Learning Research and Development Center, Univerisity of Pittsburgh.

Zeiliger, R. (1996). Concept-map based navigation in educational hypermedia: A case study. ED-MEDIA, Boston.

Zeiliger, R., Reggers, T., Balewyns, L. and Jans, V. (1997). Facilitating web navigation: Integrated tools for active and cooperative learners. 5th International Conference on Computers in Education, Kuching, Sarawk, Malaysia.

Zeiliger, R. (1998). Supporting Constructive Navigation of Web Space. Workshop on Personalized and Social Navigation in Information Space, Stockholm, Sweden.

Zeiliger, R. (1999). Implementing a constructivist approach to web navigation support. ED-MEDIA, Seattle, WA, AACE.

Zimmaro, D., Zappe, S., Parkes, J. and Suen, H. (1999). Validation of concept maps as a representation of structural knowledge. American Educational Research Association, Montreal.